DCA and CancerDCA as a Cancer Treatment - Sodium Dichloroacetate

Science 1 June 1984:
Vol. 224. no. 4652, pp. 994 - 996
DOI: 10.1126/science.6372095

Reversal of adriamycin resistance by verapamil in human ovarian cancer

AM Rogan, TC Hamilton, RC Young, RW Klecker Jr, and RF Ozols

The effectiveness of adriamycin in the treatment of ovarian cancer and other human tumors has been limited by the development of drug resistance. Verapamil, a calcium channel blocking agent, completely reversed adriamycin resistance in human ovarian cancer cells with moderate (three- to sixfold) degrees of resistance and partially reversed resistance in highly (150-fold) resistant cells. The potentiating effect of verapamil was due to inhibition of adriamycin efflux in the resistant cells. These results have led to a clinical trial of adriamycin and verapamil in refractory ovarian cancer patients.